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BITH 502x. Hebrew. See HEBR 302.

BITH 503. Language Study. Graduate-level study of an ancient or modern language in conjunction with a one semester or advanced language course taught at Wheaton College. Requires advisor's approval and permission of instructor. (2 or 4)

BITH 504. Language Study. Graduate-level study of an ancient or modern language in conjunction with a second semester language course taught at Wheaton College. Requires advisor's approval and permission of instructor. (2 or 4)

BITH 505. Language Study. Graduate-level study of an ancient or modern language in conjunction with a one semester or advanced language course taught at Wheaton College. Requires advisor's approval and permission of instructor. (2 or 4)

BITH 517, 518. Studies in Biblical Lands. An investigation into the biblical literature and theology in their historical, cultural, and geographical setting. A ten-week program with a major emphasis in Israel and supporting study in other biblical lands such as Greece, Egypt, Turkey, Jordan, and Italy. Special attention is paid to the various Middle Eastern cultures—ancient and modern, Christian and non-Christian. Su (4, 4)

BITH 521. Theology of Education. An examination of fundamental theological issues underlying education, including the relationship of revelation to other disciplines, the Christian conception of persons and knowing, and the relationship of the Church to culture. Required for the Master of Arts in Teaching degree. (2)

BITH 525. Biblical Theology. A study of the major theological themes within the Old and New Testaments, based upon the biblical text and the writings of major biblical theologians. The course will also consider the historical development and interrelationship of these themes throughout the successive periods of biblical history.

BITH 526x. Biblical Theology of Worship. An examination of worship in the Bible, both Old and New Testaments, with a view to developing a theology of worship that is consistent with the teachings of Scripture. Special attention will be paid to the appropriate application of this theology for the church today.

BITH 532. Greek Exegesis in the Septuagint. Introduces the Greek Old Testament and modern Septuagintal studies. Exegesis of selected passages of the Greek Old Testament with special reference to the corresponding passage in the Hebrew text and, when relevant, its use in the New Testament. Prerequisite: BITH 564, completion of Greek competency and one year of Hebrew or instructor’s approval. Counts toward Greek exegesis requirement in Biblical Exegesis program. (2 or 4)

BITH 534. Pentateuch. Primeval and patriarchal history. God' s sovereign rule as Creator and the choice and development of Israel as his special people. A study of the relationship between law and covenant and of Israel as a worshiping community.

BITH 535. Prophets and Prophecy. A study of the phenomenon of prophecy in ancient Israel, in its theological and cultural settings. In addition to the critical issues, the major prophets will be examined and their message and theology studied as part of the mainstream of the prophetic movement. (2)

BITH 536. Old Testament Book Studies from the English Text. Studies of the content, message, and contemporary relevance of selected portions of the Old Testament against the background and the setting of the original writer and recipients. (2 or 4)

BITH 537. History of Israel I. Analysis of the Formative Period of Israelite history, including the conquest, heroic age, and Davidic kingship. The historical, literary, theological, and sociopolitical aspects of the encounter between Mosaic Yahwism and Canaanite Baalism are investigated and evaluated. (2)

BITH 538. History of Israel II. Analysis of the Traditional, Exilic, and Restoration Periods of Israelite history, including the "golden age" of Solomon, the decline and fall of the divided kingdoms, the rise of prophetism, the exile, and the establishment of the post-exilic Temple state. The tensions between the politics of justice versus oppression, and the religion of God's freedom versus accessibility are highlighted. (2)

BITH 539. Ancient Near East Backgrounds of the Old Testament. An introduction to background and comparative studies that will focus on methodology and the conceptual world of the ancient Near East. As the cultures and literatures are compared both similarities and differences will emerge and be evaluated for their impact and role in the exegesis of the biblical text. (2)

BITH 541. Old Testament Criticism. A study of the history, method, and results of modern historical approaches to the Old Testament literature. Attention will be given to a critical assessment of these developments from an evangelical perspective. (2)

BITH 543. New Testament Criticism. A study of the history, method, and results of modern historical approaches to the New Testament literature. Attention will be given to a critical assessment of these developments from an evangelical perspective. (2)

BITH 546. New Testament Book Studies from the English Text. The content, message, and contemporary relevance of selected portions of the New Testament against the background of the setting of the original writer and recipients. Logical units of the NT literature. (2 or 4)

BITH 547. Life and Teachings of Jesus. The events and teachings of Jesus in their contemporary context together with an analysis of current relevant research.

BITH 548. Life and Teachings of Paul. The major aspects of the teachings of Paul in the context of his life and times as reflected in selected parts of his letters and Acts.

BITH 551. Greco Roman Backgrounds of the New Testament. An introductory study of the Greco-Roman world, including its history, society, culture, religion, and literature, in relation to the expansion of early Christianity and the New Testament documents. (2)

BITH 552. Jewish Backgrounds of the New Testament. A study of the history, literature, and thought within Judaism in the Persian and Hellenistic periods. In providing an important backdrop to the understanding and interpretation of the New Testament, emphasis will fall on the political and economic forces at work in Palestine, as well as the religious ideas and practices. (2)

BITH 553. New Testament and Early Christian History. An investigation of the history, literature, and theology of the New Testament and Christianity prior to A.D. 325.

BITH 554x. Topics in Archaeology. See ARCH 554. (2 or 4)

BITH 558. Topics in Advanced Biblical and Theological Studies. Separate courses devoted to the study of topics of general interest. (2 or 4)

BITH 561. Theological Anthropology. A theological examination of the nature of persons with special reference to issues raised by modern philosophy and psychology. (2)

BITH 562. Introduction to Old Testament Exegesis. A practical hermeneutics course, orienting students to the principles and praxis of Old Testament exegesis. Focusing on selected Hebrew texts, chosen from various genres, attention will be given to the literary and rhetorical strategies employed by biblical authors to achieve their intended goals. Particular issues to be addressed include textual criticism, lexical and grammatical analysis, compositional style and genre and the broader canonical and historical contexts. Prerequisites: HEBR 301, 302, 401. (2)

BITH 563. Apologetics. Survey of the theological resources for meeting contemporary challenges to Christianity, including the problems of secularism, pluralism, evil, and the historicity of Jesus. (2)

BITH 564. Principles of Interpretation (Hermeneutics). A survey of the principles, methods, and history necessary for a proper interpretative approach to biblical literature and its various literary genres. Though the course will provide a broad introduction for interpreting the whole Bible, the actual assignments of the course will be based primarily on the Greek New Testament. Completion of the Greek Competency (12 hours) or instructor’s approval is required for the course. The course itself is a prerequisite for all exegetical courses in Old and New Testament.

BITH 565. Christian Theology. An introduction to the methods of systematic theology and the major topics within the biblical revelation. Special attention is given to the rationale for these Christian doctrines, their systematic interconnections as well as their development within the history of Christian thought, and their contemporary challenges.

BITH 566. Foundations for Biblical Interpretation. A survey of the principles, methods, and issues of biblical and theological interpretation in the past and present. Intended for students in non-theological disciplines, as well as for those in Biblical and Theological studies who have limited theological preparation.

BITH 567x. Theology of the Church. (See BITH 382). (2)

BITH 569. Christian Traditions. A survey of the major Christian traditions with an emphasis on their theological presuppositions and systematic thought, including the common tradition of the early church, as well as the Orthodox, Catholic, Reformed, and modern Protestant traditions.

BITH 571. Introduction to the History of Christianity. A summary introduction to the history of Christianity designed to provide a rapid but comprehensive overview to assist students who seek basic understanding of the history of Christianity as a background for other fields of study. The emphasis is upon succinct summary, and the course will focus on key turning points in Church history from the early church to the twentieth century. Graduate students will attend the same lectures as undergraduates in HIST 305 but receive different syllabi with different levels of required work. (2)

BITH 572x. Doctrine of Scripture. See BITH 392. (2 or 4)

BITH 573. Scripture and Theology. An in-depth examinaton of the ways in which theologians use Scripture in formulating theological proposals, both with regard to Christian doctrine (theology) and Christian practice (ethics). The course explores the nature of Scripture the authority of Scripture, and ways in which the work of theology moves "beyond" Scripture in order to respond to the contemporary situation of the church.

BITH 576. History of Christianity to 1900. An introduction to the history of Christianity from the age of the apostles through the nineteenth century. The course treats the development of institutions, doctrines, and interactions with culture. It is divided into approximately equal sections on the early church, the church in the middle ages, the era of the reformation, and the period 1600-1900. The course is meant to be a complement of HIST 477/BITH 577, which focuses on the worldwide expansion of Christianity in the last two centuries.

BITH 577. Modern World Christianity . A survey of the history of world Christianity since the middle of the nineteenth century. This course includes some background on the earlier missionary expansion of the Church, but its emphasis is on the transition of Christianity from a western to a world religion in the last two centuries. Most of the course treats the modern history of Christianity outside of Europe and North America. David Barrett's World Christian Encyclopedia is the basic reference book for the material to be covered.

BITH 581. The Reformation. The doctrines and practices of the Reformers (1450-1650) in their political, social, economic, and intellectual contexts. Special attention to Luther, the Reformed (Zwingli and Calvin), Anabaptists, the English Reformation, and the Catholic Reformation.

BITH 585x. History of Christianity in North America. See HIST 483.

BITH 622. Theological and Religious Issues in Psychotherapy. A study of the religious issues that are confronted in psychotherapy, with an emphasis on the practical clinical applications and implications of Christian theology. The role of the psychologist as a healer and minister of grace will be considered, as well as topics such as sin and evil, confession, redemption, forgiveness, and the use of prayer and Scripture. (For Psy.D. students or with permission of instructor and department chair.) (2)

BITH 623. The History of Pastoral Care. A survey of the principles and techniques of Christian nurture (the care of souls) from the time of Gregory the Great to the modern church in America. Both primary and secondary sources are read in an effort to understand how the church has ministered to persons with various needs and in varied circumstances. (For Psy.D. students or with permission of instructor and department chair.) (2)

BITH 624. Theological Ethics for Counseling. A course designed to explore the biblical and theological foundations for a Christian ethic together with a consideration of the main Christian traditions in ethics. Case study applications will be made to issues in counseling. (For Psy.D. students or with permission of instructor and department chair.) (2)

BITH 625. World Christian Perspectives. Readings and discussions on the task of biblical interpretation and theological reflection in the context of world Christianity. (2)

BITH 631. Intermediate Hebrew. A comprehensive study of the basic principles and methods of interpreting the Hebrew Old Testament. Emphasis on reading as a tool to build vocabulary and understanding of Hebrew grammar and syntax. Prerequisite: working knowledge of Hebrew.

BITH 634. Poetic Books. The form and content of Hebrew poetry with its background in ancient Near Eastern literature. An examination of key passages in books such as Psalms, Proverbs, and Job. (2 or 4)

BITH 635. Hebrew Exegesis. Exegesis of books or selected portions of larger books of the Hebrew Old Testament. Capability of translation is assumed because of the prerequisite. The purpose of the course is not to teach Hebrew grammar, but to interpret the Old Testament from the Hebrew text. Prerequisite: BITH 562. (2 or 4)

BITH 638. Old Testament Theology. The major teachings of the various parts and the whole of the Old Testament with concentration upon some of the most important themes in an attempt to discover the intention of the biblical writers.

BITH 639. Advanced Old Testament Topics. Separate courses devoted to the study of specialized topics, issues, or areas within the Old Testament field. (2 or 4)

BITH 641. Current Issues in Old Testament Studies. An examination of recent trends in Old Testament scholarship with special attention paid to significant problem areas. Prerequisite: BITH 541. (2)

BITH 645. Canonical Biblical Interpretation. An integrative course that is the capstone of the M.A. in Biblical Exegesis program. The course enables students to solidify their ability to exegete scripture with canonical sensitivity. It also guides the student in integrating a canonical perspective into the exegetical and hermeneutical enterprise, including relating parts of the testaments to one another and to their particular relevant historical backgrounds within a biblical-theological framework. Various texts and themes throughout the OT and NT will form the basis for the semester’s work. Four hours to be taken in the student’s last spring semester of the program.

BITH 646. Greek Exegesis. Exegesis of books or selected portions of larger books of the Greek New Testament. Capability of translation is assumed because of the prerequisite. The purpose of the course is not to teach Greek grammar but to interpret the New Testament from the Greek text. Prerequisite: BITH 564 or equivalent. (2 or 4)

BITH 648. New Testament Theology. An investigation of the dominant themes in the New Testament in the light of the cultures in which they were produced and the methods of representative contemporary New Testament theologians.

BITH 649. Advanced New Testament Topics. Separate courses devoted to the study of specialized topics, issues, or areas within the New Testament field. (2 or 4)

BITH 651. Current Issues in New Testament Studies. An examination of recent trends in New Testament scholarship with special attention given to significant problem areas. Prerequisite: BITH 543. (2)

BITH 653. Historical Theology: Patristic . An examination of the theological developments from the second through the fifth centuries. Special attention is given to the formation of the ecumenical creeds, developments in the doctrines of the canon, God, Christology, soteriology, ecclesiology, and the sacraments, as well as the nuances differentiating the Orthodox and Roman Catholic traditions. (2)

BITH 654. Historical Theology: Medieval Christianity. An examination of the theological developments from the fifth through the fourteenth centuries. Special attention is given to the relationship between reason and revelation, soteriology, ecclesiology, the sacraments, and popular piety. (2)

BITH 655. Historical Theology: Reformation. An examination of the key theological writings during the Reformation period, including selections by Lutheran, Calvinist, Anabaptist, and Catholic figures. (2)

BITH 656. Historical Theology: Modern . An examination of the theological developments from the Enlightenment to the present, focusing on key figures representing nineteenth-century German liberalism, neo-orthodoxy, post-Vatican II Catholicism, liberation, and postmodern theology. (2)

BITH 669. Topics in Theology. Selected topics in theology to provide for in-depth study of a selected topic of current interest. (2 or 4)

BITH 674. Theology and the Liberal Arts. An in-depth examination of the interactions that have taken and are taking place between theology and the arts, as well as the natural and human sciences. Students will explore the ways that theology can assist the disciplines to be "for Christ and his kingdom" (and how the disciplines might return the favor to theology).

BITH 675. Advanced Systematic Theology. An in-depth examination of theological method and the major theological topics within the traditional loci, employing classical and contemporary theological texts.

BITH 676. Seminar in Systematic Theology.

676-1. Focused seminars providing for in-depth research of particular persons, movements, events, eras, topics, and themes in Systematic Theology. (2 or 4)

676-2. Focused seminars providing for in-depth research of particular persons, movements, events, eras, topics, and themes in Systematic Theology (assumes an ancient language or modern language research component in primary and/or secondary resource materials).

BITH 677. Topics in the History of Christianity. Separate courses devoted to the study of the Christian church in specific eras or countries, or specific themes in church history. (2 or 4)

BITH 679. Seminar in Historical Theology.

679-1. Focused seminars providing for in-depth research of particular persons, movements, events, eras, topics, and themes in Historical Theology. (2 or 4)

679-2. Focused seminars providing for in-depth research of particular persons, movements, events, eras, topics, and themes in Historical Theology (assumes an ancient language or modern language research component in primary and/or secondary resource materials).

BITH 682. Colloquium in the History of American Christianity. Special courses in specific aspects or themes of the history of the church in North America. Taught in conjunction with visiting scholars sponsored by the Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals. (2 or 4)

BITH 683. Historiography of the History of Christianity. Christianity and history, with emphasis on the history of Church History, the implications for the meaning and practice of history, and the relationship of philosophies of history to the Christian faith. (2)

BITH 684. Methods in Scholarship. This course is strongly recommended for students planning to pursue doctoral work in the History of Christianity or Theology. Seminar sessions explore Christian vocation in scholarship and provide training in subjects including writing a journal article or book review, archival research, presenting at conferences, applying to Ph.D. programs, paleography, and job interviewing. A forum for the presentation of student theses is also included. (0)

BITH 687. Seminar in American Christianity and Historical Theology.

687-1. Focused seminars providing for in-depth research of particular persons, movements, events, eras, topics, and themes in Church History. (2 or 4)

687-2. Focused seminars providing for in-depth research of particular persons, movements, events, eras, topics, and themes in Church History (assumes an ancient language or modern language research component in primary and/or secondary resource materials).

BITH 692. Graduate Comprehensive Exam. Prerequisites: The student should be in the final semester of coursework, have completed all core courses, or have completed all coursework. Fee $25. Graded pass/fail. (0)

BITH 695. Independent Study. Intensive research on a precisely defined topic related to some phase of Biblical and Theological Studies. Initiative for selecting the topic and proposing the methodology rests with the student. A faculty member must approve, recommend amendments (if necessary), supervise, and evaluate the project. Limit four hours in any one degree program except by special permission. (1 to 4)

BITH 696. Internship. (2 or 4)

BITH 698. Thesis.

BITH 699. Thesis Continuation. See M.A. Thesis/Applied Thesis/Action Research. (0)

BITH 751. Introduction to Doctoral Research. Orientation to doctoral research in theology and to Wheaton's Ph.D. program in Biblical and Theological Studies. (1)

BITH 752, 753, 754. Colloquium. Designed to track the requirement that students involve themselves in the life of the academic community by participating in occasional lectures and discussions on topics of interest. (1 each)

BITH 793. Directed Study. Supervised independent study in conjunction with the auditing of a regular graduate BTS course. (2-4)

BITH 794. Directed Study in the Liberal Arts. Supervised independent study in conjunction with the auditing of a regular undergraduate course in the liberal arts. (2-4)

BITH 795. Guided Research. Supervised independent study. (2-4)

BITH 798. Supervised Pedagogical Experience. Students participate with a faculty member in teaching a course. (2)

BITH 879. Theological Hermeneutics. Orientation tot theolgical interpretation of Scripture, with special attention to the interface between general hermeneutics and biblical and theological studies. (2)

BITH 881. Biblical Theology. Orientation to theological interpretation of Scripture, with special attention to the nature and practice of biblical theology. (2)

BITH 882. Seminar: Topics in Biblical Theology. Intense study of a particular topic in biblical theology, normally including work in both Old and New Testaments.

BITH 883. Seminar: Topics in Systematic or Historical Theology. Intense study of a particular topic in systematic or historical theology.

BITH 898. Dissertation. (0)

BITH 899. Dissertation Continuation (Full-time). (0)

BITH 999. Dissertation Continuation (Part-time). (0)

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