"Isaiah Saw His Glory": The Use of Isaiah 52-53 in John 12
By Daniel J. Brendsel Ph.D. 2013
de Gruyter 2014 >>
The influence of Isaiah on John’s narrative and theology has long been recognized, but it has yet to receive monograph-length attention. This study is a beginning attempt to fill that void through an examination of the use of Isaiah in the crucial hinge of John’s gospel—John 12:1–43. Beginning with a reading of Isaiah 40–55 illustrating a way in which early Christians may have read this important section of Scripture, the bulk of the study examines the pericopes in John 12:1–43, seeking to identify and interpret John’s use of Isaiah 52–53. It is concluded that a reading of this well-known Isaianic text rooted within its broader context in Isaiah, together with the mediating influence of other texts—notably Isa 6:9–10 and Zech 9:9–10—has fueled much Johannine theology, Christology, and ecclesiology. Moreover, mirroring the progression of Isa 52:7–53:1 in John 12 is the author’s way of underlining Jesus’ identity as the Servant of God and announcing that the second exodus prophesied by Isaiah is secured by the rejection (and death) of Jesus.
YHWH Fights for Them!: The Divine Warrior in the Exodus Narrative
By Charlie Trimm Ph.D. 2012
Gorgias 2014 >>
The divine warrior is an important motif in the Old Testament, leading many to study profitably the motif in its most prominent manifestations in poetic texts. This study builds on that foundation by examining the divine warrior in detail in the exodus narrative to construct a broader picture of the motif in the Old Testament.
The heart of the work focuses on the exodus narrative. Many aspects of YHWH's actions in the narrative, such as the terminology, his nature weapons, his psychological attacks, the presence of supernatural envoys and disease, and his harmonious relationship with his people identify YHWH s role as that of a divine warrior. Several other elements match the description of the motif of the divine warrior elsewhere in the Old Testament, but are described in more detail in the narrative than in the briefer poetic divine warrior texts. The exodus narrative also expands the martial aspects of the divine warrior, as it includes a broader selection of nature weapons, psychological attacks directed at Pharaoh, the employment of cosmic enemies against Pharaoh, and assaults on the Egyptians gods. Finally, a possible connection between the divine control of Pharaoh (focusing in particular on the hardening of his heart) and the motif of the divine warrior is explored.
The Crucified King: Atonement and Kingdom in Biblical and Systematic Theology
By Jeremy R. Treat,
Zondervan 2014 >>
The kingdom of God and the atonement are two of the most important themes in all of Scripture. Tragically, theologians have often either set the two at odds or focused on one to the complete neglect of the other. In The Crucified King, Jeremy Treat demonstrates that Scripture presents a mutually enriching relationship between the kingdom and atonement that draws significantly from the story of Israel and culminates in the crucifixion of Christ the king. As Israel's Messiah, he holds together the kingdom and the cross by bringing God's reign on earth through his atoning death. The kingdom is the ultimate goal of the cross, and the cross is the means by which the kingdom comes. Jesus' death is not the failure of his messianic ministry, nor simply the prelude to his royal glory, but is the apex of his kingdom mission. The cross is the throne from which he rules and establishes his kingdom. Using a holistic approach that brings together the insights of biblical and systematic theology, this book demonstrates not only that the kingdom and the cross are inseparable, but how they are integrated in Scripture and theology.
"God Is One": The Function of "Eis O Theos" As a Ground for Gentile Inclusion in Paul's Letters
By Chris Bruno, Ph.D. 2010
Bloomsbury 2013 >>
In discussions of Paul's letters, much attention has been devoted to statements that closely identify Christ with Israel's God (i.e., 1 Cor 8:6). However, in Rom 3:30 and Gal 3:20, Paul uses the phrase "God is one" to link Israel's monotheistic confession and the inclusion of the Gentiles in the people of God. Therefore, this study traces the OT and early Jewish backgrounds of the phrase "God is one" and their possible links to Gentile inclusion. Following this, Christopher Bruno examines the two key Pauline texts that link the confession of God as one with the inclusion of the Gentiles. Bruno observes a significant discontinuity between the consistent OT and Jewish interpretations of the phrase and Paul's use of "God is one" in relation to the Gentiles. In the both the OT and early Jewish literature, the phrase functions as a boundary marker of sorts,distinguishing the covenant people and the Gentiles. The key exception to this pattern is Zech 14:9, which anticipates the confession of God as one expanding to the nations. Similarly, in Romans and Galatians, the phrase is not a boundary marker, but rather grounds the unity of Jew and Gentile. The context and arguments in Rom 3:30 and Gal 3:20 lead to the conclusion that Paul's monotheism must now be understood in light of the Christ event; moreover, Zech14:9 may play a significant role in the link between Paul's eschatological monotheism and his argument for the inclusion of the Gentiles in Romans and Galatians.
I Will Surely Multiply Your Offspring: An Old Testament Theology of the Blessing of Progeny with Special Attention to the Latter Prophets
By Jamie Viands, Ph.D. 2010
Pickwick 2013 >>
After creating man and woman, God's first recorded blessing upon them is "be fruitful and multiply." Like the blessings of food and health, the human experience of procreation is so common that we may overlook its importance within the biblical narrative. However, I Will Surely Multiply Your Offspring, a comprehensive examination of the progeny blessing, demonstrates that this motif is both prevalent and significant within the Old Testament by tracing its development throughout the redemptive-historical narrative. Viands identifies different progeny blessing traditions associated with the Abrahamic covenant, the Sinai covenant, and the new covenant, and describes their interrelationships as well as their relationship to the universal blessing first found in Genesis 1. This study lays the foundation for a biblical worldview of human proliferation, contributing to contemporary discussions concerning whether humans are obligated to bear children as well as procreation ethics.
The Mind of Christ: Humility and the Intellect in Early Christian Theology
By Stephen T. Pardue, Ph.D. 2012
Bloomsbury, 2013 >>
This book brings a variety of theological resources to bear on the now widespread effort to put humility in its proper place. In recent years, an assortment of thinkers have offered competing evaluations of humility, so that its moral status is now more contentious than ever. Like all accounts of humility, the one advanced in this study has to do with the proper handling of human limits. What early Christian resources offer, and what discussions of the issue since the eighteenth century have often overlooked, is an account of the ways in which human limits are permeable, superable and open to modification because of the working of divine grace. This notion is especially relevant for a renewed vision of intellectual humility—the primary aim of the project—but the study will also suggest the significance of the argument for ameliorating contemporary concerns about humility’s generally adverse effects.
Portraits of the Righteous in the Psalms: An Exploration of the Ethics of Book I
By Daniel C. Owens, Ph.D. 2012
Wipf & Stock, 2013 >>
What have the Psalms to do with ethics? Readers prize the Psalter for its richly theological prayers, but into these prayers are woven a variety of ethical issues. This book explores the ethics of the Psalter by examining the four portraits of the righteous person that punctuate Book I. It begins by studying these psalms as individual compositions and then employs both the canonical approach and dialogic criticism to identify the complex relationship between the portraits' vision of the righteous life and its outcome. Does the righteous person enjoy security and the good life? The answer may be surprising, but joining the psalmist on the rocky path of the interface of faith and experience is certain to prove a formative experience.
The Blessing of Abraham, the Spirit, and Justification in Galatians: Their Relationship and Significance for Understanding Paul's Theology
By Chee Chiew Lee, Ph.D. 2010
Pickwick, 2013 >>
What has the Spirit to do with the blessing of Abraham and justification? This book challenges the common assumption that the Abrahamic blessing and the Spirit are equated in Gal 3:14 and points out how an accurate understanding of the relationship between these two motifs contributes significantly to appreciating Paul's overall argument in Galatians and his theology of justification. Even though Paul does not cite Old Testament passages on the promise of the Spirit in Gal 3:1-14, his arguments are nonetheless deeply influenced by the whole prophetic tradition about the Spirit. Most current discussions on the present and future aspects of justification have yet to consider the Spirit's role in the latter. Given the renewed interest in Pauline justification, this book contributes to this important aspect of the Spirit's role in future justification, which needs to be developed further in Pauline and New Testament theology.
Zeal Without Knowledge: The Concept of Zeal in Romans 10, Galatians 1, and Philippians 3
By Dane Ortlund, Ph.D. 2010
Bloomsbury 2012 >>
This book examines the concept of ‘zeal’ in three Pauline texts (Rom 10:2; Gal 1:14; Phil 3:6) as a way-in to discussion of the ‘New Perspective’ on Paul. The concept of zeal has been discussed in a sustained way by James D. G. Dunn, who argues that Paul was drawing on a long and venerable tradition of Jewish zeal for the nation of Israel, that is, a concern to maintain Israel’s distinction from the surrounding nations by defending and reinforcing its boundaries. Ortlund interacts with Dunn, agreeing that this concern for distinctiveness was a crucial, and neglected, concern of Paul's before his conversion. Nevertheless, Ortlund contends that Dunn has presented an overly narrow understanding of Pauline zeal that does not sufficiently locate zeal in the broader picture of general obedience to Torah in Jewish tradition. As such, Ortlund shows in this work that zeal refers most immediately to general obedience to Torah - including, but not to be centrally circumscribed as, ethnic distinction.
The Rhetoric of Remembrance: An Investigation of the "Fathers" in Deuteronomy
By Jerry Hwang, Ph.D. 2009
Eisenbrauns 2012 >>
The Rhetoric of Remembrance demonstrates that Deuteronomy depicts the corporate solidarity of Israel in the land promised to the "fathers" (part 1), under the sovereignty of the same "God of the fathers" across the nation's history (part 2), as governed by a timeless covenant of the "fathers" between YHWH and his people (part 3). In the narrative world of Deuteronomy, the "fathers" begin as the patriarchs, while frequently scrolling forward in time to include every generation that has received YHWH's promises but nonetheless continues to await their fulfillment.
Reading Zechariah with Zechariah 1:1-6 as the Introduction to the Entire Book
By Heiko Wenzel, Ph.D. 2008
Peeters 2011 >>
In light of the widely acknowledged phenomenon that Zechariah refers to previous Scripture, this thesis demonstrates that these references can significantly contribute to Zechariah’s argument by drawing on Mikhail M. Bakhtin’s insight of the dialogical orientation of words. The dialogical orientation of Zechariah’s word with regard to previous Scripture and Zechariah’s audience establishes Zech 1:1–6 as the introduction to the entire book. It also develops a theology of transition and of waiting. Seven case studies demonstrate that the call of Zechariah 1:3-4 sounds through the entire book. The call to be different from the ancestors in a time of waiting emphasizes the people’s responsibility to live faithfully within the Sinai covenant. It also points to the prophetic function of the so-called apocalyptic notions in Zechariah and exhibits Zechariah’s specific contribution to the Book of the Twelve, to the Old Testament and for the church.
The Danielic Eschatological Hour In The Johannine Literature
By Stefanos Mihalios, Ph.D. 2009
Bloomsbury 2011 >>
Stefanos Mihalios examines the uses of the ‘hour’ in the writings of John and demonstrates the contribution of Danielic eschatology to John’s understanding of this concept. Mihalios begins by tracing the notion of an eschatological time in the Old Testament within expressions such as ‘in that time’ and ‘time of distress,’ which also appear in the book of Daniel and relate to the eschatological hour found in Daniel. Mihalios finds that even within the Jewish tradition there exists an anticipation of the fulfillment of the Danielic eschatological time, since the eschatological hour appears in the Jewish literature within contexts that allude to the Danielic end-time events. Mihalios moves on to examines the Johannine eschatological expressions and themes that have their source in Daniel, finding evidence of clear allusions whenever the word ‘hour’ arises. Through this examination, he concludes that for the Johannine Jesus use of the term ‘hour’ indicates that the final hour of tribulation and resurrection, as it is depicted in Daniel, has arrived.
Be Wise, My Son, and Make My Heart Glad: An Exploration of the Courtly Nature of the Book of Proverbs
By Christopher B. Ansberry, Ph.D. 2010
Walter De Gruyter 2010 >>
The social and intellectual context of the material in the book of Proverbs has given rise to several proposals concerning the nature of the constituent compendia within the document as well as the function of the discourse as a whole. In light of the problems inherent in an investigation of the nature and function of Proverbs, the present study focuses on the social dimensions of the document within its distinct, literary context. That is, the study attempts to examine the nature and function of the sapiential material within its new performance context, viz., the discursive context, the Sitz im Buch. This form of analysis moves beyond the investigation of individual aphorisms to provide a concrete context through which to view the various components of the discourse as well as the discourse as a whole. In the main, the study explores the formal, discursive, and thematic features of the constituent collections within the book of Proverbs in order to identify the nature and function of the work. More specifically, the study highlights the fundamental features of the book’s discourse setting, the thematic development of the material, the ethos of the individual collections and their role within Proverbs in order to ascertain the degree to which the document may be considered a courtly piece.
She Must and Shall Go Free: Paul's Isaianic Gospel in Galatians
By Matthew S. Harmon, Ph.D. 2006
Walter de Gruyter 2010 >>
Scholars have long recognized the importance of Paul´s citations from the Pentateuch for understanding the argument of Galatians. But what has not been fully appreciated is the key role that Isaiah plays in shaping what Paul says and how he says it, even though he cites Isaiah explicitly only once (Isaiah 54:1 in Galatians 4:27). Using an intertextual approach to trace more subtle appropriations of Scripture (i.e., allusions, echoes and thematic parallels), Harmon argues that Isaiah 49-54 in particular has shaped the structure of Paul´s argument and the content of his theological reflection in Galatians. Each example of Isaianic influence is situated within its original context as well as its new context in Galatians. Attention is also paid to how those same Isaianic texts were interpreted in Second Temple Judaism, providing the larger interpretive context within which Paul read Scripture. The result is fresh light shed on Paul's self-understanding as an apostle to the Gentiles, the content of his gospel message, his reading of the Abraham story and the larger structure of Galatians.
The Christ's Faith: A Dogmatic Account
By R. Michael Allen, Ph.D. 2007
The Christ’s Faith coheres with orthodox Christology and Reformation soteriology, and needs to be affirmed to properly confirm the true humanity of the incarnate Son. Without addressing the interpretation of the Pauline phrase pistis christou, this study offers a theological rationale for an exegetical possibility and enriches a dogmatic account of the humanity of the Christ. The coherence of the Christ’s faith is shown in two ways. First, the objection of Thomas Aquinas is refuted by demonstrating that faith is fitting for the incarnate Son. Second, a theological ontology is offered which affirms divine perfection and transcendence in qualitative fashion, undergirding a Chalcedonian and Reformed Christology. Thus, the humanity of the Christ may be construed as a fallen human nature assumed by the person of the Word and sanctified by the Holy Spirit. The dogmatic location of The Christ’s Faith is sketched by suggesting its (potential) function within three influential theological systems: Thomas Aquinas, federal theology, and Karl Barth. Furthermore, the soteriological role of the doctrine is demonstrated by showing the theological necessity of faith for valid obedience before God.
Revealing the Mysterion: The Use of Mystery in Daniel and Second Temple Judaism with Its Bearing on First Corinthians
By Benjamin L. Gladd, Ph.D. 2008
Walter de Gruyter 2008 >>
Scholars largely agree that the NT term “mysterion” is a terminus technicus, originating from Daniel. This project traces the word in the Dead Sea Scrolls and other sectors of Judaism. Like Daniel, the term consistently retains eschatological connotations. The monograph then examines how mystery functions within 1 Corinthians and seeks to explain why the term is often employed. The apocalyptic term concerns the Messiah reigning in the midst of defeat, eschatological revelations and tongues, charismatic exegesis, and the transformation of believers into the image of the last Adam.
The Law and the Knowledge of Good and Evil: The Edenic Background of the Catalytic Operation of the Law in Paul
By Chris A. Vlachos, Ph.D. 2006
Pickwick 2009 >>
First Corinthians 15:56b, "The power of sin is the law," is both puzzling and neglected. It is puzzling since there appears to be no precursor in 1 Corinthians to the law-critical statement found there. It is neglected because of its size. Nevertheless, the short verse offers the opportunity to analyze in a rudimentary state Paul's law-sin notion that appears full-blown in Romans, and the absence of a polemical setting allows scholars to examine a law-critical statement issued during a polemical lull. In The Law and Knowledge of Good and Evil, Vlachos weighs attempts to explain the presence of 1 Cor 15:56 in 1 Corinthians and argues that the Genesis Fall narrative, where the tempter plied his seductions by way of the commandment, provides the theological substructure to Paul's understanding of the law's provocation of sin. In doing so, Vlachos contends that Paul reaches the historical high water mark of his polemic against the salvific efficacy of the law by locating a law-sin nexus in Eden, and, contrary to some recent perspectives on Paul, he argues that the edenically informed axiom in 1 Cor 15:56 suggests that Paul's fundamental concern with the law was rooted in primordial rather than ethnic soil. While studies of Paul and the law have tended to bypass Eden, The Law and Knowledge of Good and Evil breaks ground by moving the argument beyond Second Temple Judaism to the Genesis Fall account, where the prohibition against partaking of the knowledge of good and evil led to the knowledge of sin.
Echoes of Scripture in the Letter of Paul to the Colossians
By Christopher A. Beetham, Ph.D. 2005
SBL 2010 >> and Brill 2008 >>
While the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament has captured the attention of biblical scholars over the years, no study has been devoted to the presence of Scripture in Colossians, largely because there are no explicit quotations in Colossians. With the introduction of literary intertextuality into the discipline, however, scholars have begun to devote more attention to the NT authors’ less explicit references to Scripture, often labeled as ‘allusions’ and/or ‘echoes.’ Scholars, however, continue to debate what constitutes an allusion or echo, or how one validates a given proposal as such. This study proposes new definitions of these terms and offers a methodology on how to detect and validate them, using Colossians as a test case.