James Clark, Ph.D.

Professor of Geology
On Faculty since 2000

Phone: (630)752-5163
Email:

Education

Ph.D., Geology, University of Colorado, 1977

M.A., Geography, University of Colorado, 1974

B.A., General Science Major, Grinnell College, 1972

About James Clark

Dr. Jim Clark has done field work on Spitsbergen Island, 500 miles from the north pole, the Colorado Rockies and Brazil. His recent work has been in Sub-Sahara Africa and Central America. He spent 3 years at Sandia National Laboratory during the early 80’s working for the Dept. of Energy on alternative energy-related technologies, especially massive hydraulic fracturing research. He then taught at Calvin College for 17 years before coming to Wheaton College.

Dr. Clark and his wife Sue have 3 children whom they have home-schooled. They spent one year in Moscow, Russia and one year in the scrub jungle of Paraguay on missionary adventures. They now are actively involved in a Russian-speaking church in the Chicago suburbs. Dr. Clark enjoys outdoor activities (backpacking, rock climbing and kayaking) and watercolor painting.

Courses Taught

  • Physical Geology
  • Process Geomorphology
  • Global Climate Change
  • Earth Resources and the Environment
  • Introduction to Soil Science
  • Introduction to Geographical Information Systems
  • Geographical Information Systems Practicum
  • Hydrogeology
  • Quantitative Methods in the Environmental Sciences
  • Geophysics

Membership in Professional Societies

Dr. Clark received awards from the Geological Society of America for the best publication in the field of geomorphology and from the American Institute of Mechanical Engineers for the best publication in applied rock mechanics.

Research

Dr. Clark’s research includes computer modeling of the paleo hydrology and changing levels of the Great Lakes resulting from earth deformation still continuing after melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age. He uses a computer model of the whole earth to simulate the changing levels of the global oceans as recorded by ancient shorelines, modern tide gauges and satellite altimetry. This research provides assessment of the possible sea level consequences of global warming. Student assistants have helped in all aspects of this work and have presented papers at meetings of the Geological Society of America and co-authors on recently publications. The work has been funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA. He also is inventing inexpensive geophysical equipment (<$200) for finding water in developing countries. Dr. Clark assists local forest preserves by providing hydrology measurement and analysis, which involves GIS analysis and modeling of the state of surface water and groundwater.

Dr. Clark’s personal research has been in these main areas:

  • Alpine geomorphic processes
  • Glacial geology and the Ice Age
  • Global warming
  • Earth viscosity structure
  • Fracture mechanics and stress in rocks
  • Groundwater modeling
  • Quantitative methods in geology
  • Inventing inexpensive geophysical equipment

Details of Dr. Clark’s research experience:

1999-1982 Professor of Geology, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Mi

Principal Investigator of NSF Grant EAR-0414012 "Paleohydrology of the Great Lakes Region since the most recent glaciation"

Principal Investigator of NASA Grant NAG5-10348 “Simulation of global glacio-isostasy, earth deformation and sea level changes”

Principal Investigator of NSF Grant EAR-9515322 ”Reconstruction of global ice-age ice sheets from global sea-level and deformation data”

Recipient of NSF Research Instrumentation Award EAR-8916941 for ”Acquisition of a workstation”

Recipient of NSF Research Opportunity Award (ROA) ”Analysis of gravity data from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet” administered as a supplement to ”Further continuation of glacio-geophysical survey of the interior Ross Embayment” awarded to University of Wisconsin-Madison (PI: Charles Bentley; NSF grant DPP86-14011).

Principal Investigator of NSF Grant EAR-8804201 ”Reconstruction of the Laurentide Ice Sheet over the Great Lakes region from tilt data of glacial lake shorelines.”

Principal Investigator of NSF Grant EAR-8607330 ”Evaluation of the hinge line hypothesis and crustal stability in the southern Lake Michigan basin.”

Principal Investigator of NSF Grant EAR-8407660 ”The theoretical prediction of proglacial lake shoreline tilting.”

1982-1979 Member of the Technical Staff, Geotechnology Research Division, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Research involved:

  • hydraulic fracturing stimulation of ”tight” gas sands.
  • fracture mechanics at a bi-material interface.
  • finite element modeling of geological materials and earth stresses.
  • rock mechanics laboratory studies.
  • interpretation of natural fracturing in sandstone and shale.
  • geologist for Department of Energy research natural gas well. (Work funded by the Department of Energy)

1979-1977 Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences, Cornell University: Used inversion theory to calculate past ice sheet histories from global sea-level data (NSF Grant EAR77-13662; Co-Principal Investigator on NSF Grant EAR78-12977).

1977-1974 Graduate Research Assistant, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES): Computer simulation of ice/ocean/earth interactions during the past 18,000 years.

Required understanding of:

  • physics of viscous deformation of the Earth from surface loads
  • worldwide glacial changes since 18,000 yrs. B.P.
  • worldwide sea-level changes since 18,000 yrs. B.P.
  • extensive computer programming (NSF Grants GA-43191, DES74-13047-A01, EAR74-13047-A02, and NOAA Contract 03-5022-94)

1974-1971 Graduate Research Assistant, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR): Effects of cloud seeding upon erosion rates in alpine basins. Required:

  • experimental design and implementation of field projects in an alpine basin
  • analysis of results using numerous multivariate statistical methods and clustering techniques (Bureau of Reclamation Contract 14-06-D-7052)

Papers Published and/or Presented

Selected Papers published: (undergraduate co-authors indicated in boldface type)

Clark, J.A., Befus, K.M., Hooyer, T.S., Stewart, P.W., Shipman, T.D., Gregory, C.T., and Zylstra, D.J., 2008. Numerical simulation of the paleohydrology of glacial Lake Oshkosh, eastern Wisconsin, USA, Quaternary Research, 69, 117-129.

Clark, J.A., Zylstra, D.J. and Befus, K.M., 2007. Effects of Great Lakes Water Loading upon Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Lake History, Journal of Great Lakes Research, 33(3):627-641.

Van Dragt, R. and Clark, J.A., 2005. Environmental Stewardship: What are the roles for science and faith?, in Not Just Science edited by Chappell, D.F. and Cook, E.D., Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 158-173.

Clark, J.A. and Van Dyke, F., 2003. Exercise 16: Land-use classification and species conservation, in A workbook in conservation biology: solving practical problems in conservation by Fred Van Dyke and contributors, McGraw-Hill, 125-132.

Clark, J.A. and Van Dyke, F., 2003. Exercise 17: Using GIS to classify habitat types and identify habitat conservation areas, in A workbook in conservation biology: solving practical problems in conservation by Fred Van Dyke and contributers, McGraw-Hill, 125-132.

Clark, J.A., Haidle, P.E. and Cunningham, L.N., 2002. Comparison of satellite altimetry to tide gauge measurement of sea level: Prediction of glacio-isostatic adjustment. Journal of Climate. 15(22): 3291-3300.

Clark, J.A., Hendriks, M., Timmermans, T.J., Struck, C., and Hilverda, K.J., 1994. Glacial Isostatic deformation of the Great Lakes region. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 106:19-31.

Clark, J.A. and Primus, J.A., 1987. Sea-level changes resulting from future retreat of ice sheets: an effect of CO2 warming of the climate, in Sea-level Changes. Tooley, M.J. and Shennan, I., eds. Basil Blackwell Publ., Institute of British Geographers Special Publication: 356-370.

Lorenz, J.C., Heinze, D.M., Clark, J.A., and Searls, C.A., 1985. Determination of Widths of Meander-belt sandstone reservoirs from vertical downhole data, Mesaverde Group, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. 69:710-721.

Teufel, L.W., Hart, C.M., Sattler, A.R., and Clark, J.A., 1984. Determinations of hydraulic fracture azimuth by geophysical, geological, and oriented core methods at the multi-well experiment site, Colorado, SPE 13226. 59th Annual Society of Petroleum Engineers Volume.

Teufel, L.W. and Clark, J.A., 1984. Hydraulic fracture propagation in layered rock: Experimental studies of fracture containment. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal. 19-32.

Clark, J.A., 1982. Glacial loading: a cause of natural fracturing and a control of the present stress state in regions of high Devonian shale gas production, SPE/DOE 10798. 1982 SPE/DOE Low Permeability Symposium Volume. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: 87-97.

Clark, J.A., 1980. The reconstruction of the Laurentide ice sheet of North America from sea-level data: method and preliminary results. Journal of Geophysical Research. 85:4307-4323.

Clark, J.A., Farrell, W.E., and Peltier, W.R., 1978. Global changes in post-glacial sea level: a numerical calculation. Quaternary Research. 9:265-287. (Paper received Kirk Bryan Award for Best Publication from the Geological Society of America, Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology Division).

Clark, J.A. and Lingle, C.S., 1977. Future sea level changes due to West Antarctic ice-sheet fluctuations. Nature. 269:206-209

Clark, J.A., 1977. An inverse problem in glacial geology: the reconstruction of glacier thinning in Glacier Bay, Alaska, between A.D. 1910 to 1960 from relative sea-level data. Journal of Glaciology. 18:481-503.

Clark, J.A., 1974. Mudflows in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado: controls and work, M.A. thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Ives, J.D., Mears, A., Carrara, P., Glenn, M. and Clark, J.A., 1974. Avalanche and mudflow hazards on tenth filing and Ketsos ranch properties Gore Creek Valley, Colorado, Mountain Safety Corporation, Boulder, Colorado.

Farrell, W.E. and Clark, J.A., 1976. On postglacial sea level. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 46:647-667.

Clark, J.A., 1976. Greenland's rapid postglacial emergence: a result of ice/water gravitational attraction. Geology. 4:310-312.

Clark, J.A., 1976. Greenland's rapid postglacial emergence: a result of ice/water gravitational attraction: Reply. Geo1ogy. 4:453-455.

Clark, J.A., 1976. Greenland's rapid postglacial emergence: a result of ice/water gravitational attraction: Reply. Geo1ogy. 4:798.

Clark, J.A. and Lingle, C.S., 1977. Future sea level changes due to West Antarctic ice-sheet fluctuations. Nature. 269:206-209.

Clark, J.A., 1977. Global sea-level changes since the last glacial maximum and sea-level constraints on the ice sheet disintegration history, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Peltier, W.R., Farrell, W.E., and Clark, J.A., 1978. Glacial isostasy and relative sea level: A global finite element model. Tectonophysics. 50:81-110.

Clark, J.A. and Lingle, C.S., 1979. Predicted relative sea-level changes (18,000 years B.P. to present) caused by late-glacial retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet. Quaternary Research. 11:279-298.

Lingle, C.S.and Clark, J.A., 1979. Antarctic ice sheet volume at 18,000 years B.P. and Holocene sea-level changes at West Antarctic margin. Journal of Glaciology. 24:213-230.

Clark, J.A. and Bloom, A.L., 1979. Hydro-isostasy and Holocene emergence of South America. Proceedings Volume, 1978 International Symposium on Coastal Evolution in the Quaternary. Sao Paulo, Brazil: 41-60.

Clark, J.A. and Bloom, A.L., 1979. The effect of the Patagonian ice sheet on relative sea levels along the Atlantic coast of South America: a numerical calculation. Proceedings Volume, 1978 International Symposium on Coastal Evolution in the Quaternary. Sao Paulo, Brazil: 61-76.

Clark, J.A., 1980. Worldwide sea-level changes on a spherical viscoelastic earth, in Earth Rheology, Isostasy, and Eustasy. Morner, N.A., John, ed. New York: Wiley and Sons. 525-534.

Warpinski, N.R., Clark, J.A., Schmidt, R.A., Huddle, C.W., 1981. Laboratory investigation on the effect of in-situ stresses on hydraulic fracture containment, SPE/DOE 9834. 1981 SPE/DOE Low Permeability Symposium Volume. Denver, Colorado: 449-456.

Teuffel, L.W. and Clark, J.A., 1981. Hydraulic fracture propagation in layered rock: experimental studies of fracture containment, SPE/DOE 9878. 1981 SPE/DOE Low Permeability Symposium Volume. Denver, Colorado: 449-456.

Warpinski, N.R., Clark, J.A., Schmidt, R.A., Huddle, C.W., 1982. Laboratory investigation on the effect of in-situ stresses on hydraulic fracture containment. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal. 333-340.

Clark, J.A., 1983. The prediction of hydraulic fracture azimuth through geological, core, and analytical studies, SPE/DOE 11611. 1983 SPE/DOE Low Permeability Symposium Volume. Denver, Colorado: 107-114.

Sattler, A.R. and Clark, J.A., 1984. Pressure core measurements in tight sandstone lenses during the multi-well experiment, SPE/DOE/GRI 12853. 1984 Unconventional Gas Recovery Symposium Volume. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: 229-234.

Lingle, C.S. and Clark, J.A., 1984. A numerical ice-stream model: application to Holocene retreat in the Ross Sea, West Antarctica. Annals of Glaciology. 5:215-216.

Clark, J.A., 1985. Forward and inverse models in sea-level studies, in Models in Geomorphology. M. Woldenberg, Allen and Unwin, eds. Boston: 119-138.

Lingle, C.S. and Clark, J.A., 1985. A numerical model of interactions between a marine ice sheet and the solid earth: Application to a West Antarctic ice stream. Journal of Geophysical Research. 90:1100-1114.

Clark, J.A. and Primus, J.A., 1985. Sea-level changes resulting from retreat of the Antarctic ice sheet and melting of the Greenland ice sheet during the next century, Technical Report to Environmental Protection Agency under subcontract to NASA, 14 pages.

Clark, J.A., Pranger, H.S., Walsh, J.K., and Primus, J.A., 1990. A numerical model of glacial isostasy in the Lake Michigan basin, in Late Quaternary history of the Lake Michigan basin. Schneider, A.F. and Fraser, G.S., eds. Geological Society of America Special Paper 251. Boulder, Colorado:GSA. 111-123.

Clark, J.A. and Ehlers, T.A., 1993. Glacial isostasy of the Door Peninsula, Wisconsin, in Midwest Friends of the Pleistocene field trip Guidebook, Schneider, A.F., ed. 31-36.

Colman, S.M., Clark, J.A., Clayton, L., Hansel, A.K., and Larsen, C.E., 1994. Deglaciation, lake levels, and meltwater discharge in the Lake Michigan basin. Quaternary Science Reviews. 13:879- 890.

Abstracts Demonstrating Undergraduate Participation in My Research

(undergraduates indicated by bold typeface - first author presented the paper)

Befus, K.M., Gregory, C.T., Sharman, G., and Clark, J.A., 2008. Glacial isostasy and fluctuating lakes: a reconstruction of the Great Lakes during the past 20,000 years. Abstracts with Programs for the 2008 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America.

Parker, D., Sharman, G., Befus, K.M., Gregory, C.T. and Clark, J.A., 2008. Predicted late glacial and post glacial river systems and groundwater flow regime in the Great Lakes Region. Abstracts with Programs for the 2008 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America.

Shipman, T.D., Befus, K.M., Clark, J.A. and Hooyer, T.S., 2005. Use of numerical isostatic deformation models and GIS to predict ice sheet history, lake levels and paleohydrology of eastern Wisconsin during late glacial times. Abstracts with Programs for the 2005 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America.

Andresen, M.A., Stewart, P.W. and Clark, J.A., 2004. Sea level change, ice sheet fluctuations and global warming: past and present. Abstracts with Programs for the 2004 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America.

Stewart, P.W., Andresen, M.A., Clark, J.A. and Hooyer, T.S., 2004. A Geographic Information System Reconstruction of Glacial Lake Oshkosh and Ancient Hydrology of Eastern Wisconsin from Models of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. Abstracts with Programs for the 2004 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America.

Andresen, M.A., McGuire, L.M. and Clark, J.A., 2003. Sea level change, ice sheet fluctuations and global warming: past and present. Abstracts with Programs for the 2003 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America.

McGuire, L.M., Andresen, M.A. and Clark, J.A., 2003. Global rates of modern sea level change from TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry. Abstracts with Programs for the 2003 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America.

Clark, J.A., Andresen, M.A. and McGuire, L.M., 2002. Predictions and observations of global sea level from shorelines, tide gauges and satellites. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Fall 2002, Denver CO. Paper No. 180-2.

Haidle, P.E., Cunningham, L.N. and Clark, J.A., 2002. Global sea level from TOPEX/Poseiden satellite data: Predicted signatures from models of glacial isostasy. North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Spring 2002, Paper No. 33-0.

King, Z.J., Huisman, S. K. and Clark, J.A., 1998. A global glacio-isostatic inverse model: Constraints upon the Earth's viscosity structure. Abstracts with Programs for the 1998 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America. 27.

Huisman, S.K., King, Z.J. and Clark, J.A., 1998. A global glacio-isostatic inverse model: Reconstruction of optimum ice-sheet thickness history. Abstracts with Programs for the 1998 North-Central Section Meeting of the Geological Society of America. 24.

Clark, J.A., Huisman, S.K. and King Z.J., 1997. Reconstruction of global ice sheets from Earth deformation data. Abstracts with Programs for the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Geological society of America. A-34.

Clark, J.A., 1994. Simulation of ice sheets, glacial isostasy, and sea-level history. Program and Abstracts of the 13th biennial meeting of the American Quaternary Association (AMQUA), invited paper. 5-7.

Ehlers, T.A. and Clark, J.A., 1992. Glacial Lake Wisconsin shorelines as a constraint on lower mantle viscosity and ice sheet thickness in the Great Lakes region. North-Central GSA Abstracts with Programs.

Clark, J.A. and Ehlers, T.A., 1992. The role of geophysical modeling of glacio-isostasy in paleohydrological reconstructions of the glacial Great Lakes. Geological Society of America Annual meeting abstracts with programs, invited paper. A244.

Bruxvoort, J.B. and Clark, J.A., 1990. Reconstruction of the Laurentide ice sheet based on earth deformation data and flow-line constraints. North-Central GSA Abstracts with Programs. 4.

Clark, J.A. and Bruxvoort, J.B., 1989. Reconstruction of the Laurentide ice sheet from tilted glacial lake shorelines and sea-level data: an inverse calculation. North-Central Geological Society of America abstracts with programs. 7.

Clark, J.A., Timmermans, T.J., Struck, C.N., De Young, E.J., Pott, M.K., 1989. Glacio-isostatic deformation as an alternative explanation to the assumption of crustal stability in the southern Lake Michigan basin, symposium: Michigan - Its geology and geologic resources, Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Michigan State University. 10.

Timmermans, T.J., 1988. A high Calumet shoreline in southwestern Michigan as an indicator of isostatic rebound in that region. 1988 North-Central Geological Society of America meeting, Abstracts with program. RECEIVED BEST STUDENT PAPER AWARD

Hendriks, M., Icenhower, J.P., Struck, C.N., Clark, J.A. and Groen, J.A., 1988. Effects of different ice-sheet histories and earth rheologies on glacio-isostatic tilt of glacial lake shorelines in the Lake Michigan basin. 1988 North-Central Geological Society of America Meeting.

Guetter, K.P., Clark, J.A., and Clayton, L., 1987. A model of glacio-isostatic tilting of glacial lake Wisconsin shorelines. 1987 North-Central Section of the Geological Society of America Meeting, Abstracts with Programs. 201.

Timmermans, T., Hooyer, T., Groen, J. and Clark, J.A., 1986. Late glacial and post-glacial shoreline deleveling in the Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. 1986 North-Central Geological Society of America Meeting, Abstracts with Program.

Groen, J., Clark, J.A. and Koteff, C., 1986. Glacio-isostatic uplift of proglacial Lake Hitchcock. 1986 Northeast Geological Society of America Meeting, Abstracts with Programs.

Clark, J.A., Walsh, J.K., Primus, J.A., and Pranger, H.S., 1985. A model of proglacial lake strandline delevelling during the past 18,000 years: stratigraphic implications. 1985 North-Central Geological Society of America Meeting, Abstracts with Programs.

Pranger, H.S. and Clark, J.A., 1985. Predicted deformation of glacial lake shorelines of the Lake Michigan Basin. 1985 Michigan Academy of Sciences.

Primus, J.A. and Clark, J.A., 1985. A numerical model of vertical crustal movement in the Lake Michigan basin. 1985 Michigan Academy of Sciences.

Clark, J.A., Pranger, H.S., Pranger, H.S., Walsh, J.K., 1984. Holocene sea level and proglacial lake indicators of vertical crustal movement. 1984 Chapman Conference on Vertical Crustal Motion: Measurement and Modeling.

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