Raymond Lewis, Ph.D.


Wheaton College Science Station

Associate Professor of Biology
On Faculty since 1996

Phone: (630)752-5300


Ph.D., Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara. 1991.

M.Sc., Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 1982.

B.A. (Highest Honors), Biological Sciences, University of California, Berkeley. 1979.

About Raymond Lewis

Professionally Dr. Lewis is interested in genetics and physiology of marine algae, environmental ethics, applied phycology and botany. Personally his interests include natural history, Asian cuisine, and missions.

Courses Taught

  • BIOL 242 Diversity of Life: an introduction to Zoology and Botany 
  • BIOL 252 Introduction to Biological Research
  • BIOL 319 Environmental Ethics
  • BIOL 341 Plant Physiology
  • BIOL 344 Economic Botany
  • BIOL 494 The Integrated Biologist (Senior Capstone)
  • SCI 311 Theories of Origins

Membership in Professional Societies

  • American Scientific Affiliation
  • Phycological Society of America
  • International Phycological Society
  • Botanical Society of America
  • Council on Undergraduate Research


Dr. Lewis' research involves characterizing the factors that control the growth and reproduction of marine brown algae. Specifically, growth and gametogenesis of microscopic gametophytes of the large and ecologically significant kelps are characterized in response to salinity, pheromones, pH, nutrients, and light.



Wheaton students indicated with *

*Wallett, K.N., Greenberg, J.G., *Kvasnicka, J., *Pickens, B., *Jackson, M., *Gamble, C., Keil, C.B., Clark, J.A. and Lewis, R.J. 2016. Low-tech waste stabilization ponds in the service of the global poor: The W.A.S.T.E. program, in Wessel, G.R., and Greenberg, J.K., eds., Geoscience for the Public Good and Global Development: Toward a Sustainable Future: Geological Society of America Special Paper 520, p. 387–392, doi:10.1130/2016.2520(34).    

Greenberg, J.G., *Wallett, K.N., *Gamble, C., Keil, C.B., *Pickens, B., *Edgren, D.C., Lewis, R.J., and Clark, J.A. 2015. Small-scale waste-stabilisation ponds for rural communities: An undergraduate experimental venture. Waterlines 34(4):435-444.

Lewis, R.J., *Green, M.K., *Afzal, M.E. 2013. Effects of chelated iron on gametogenesis and vegetative growth of kelp gametophytes (Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research 61: 46-51.

Phillips, N., Kapraun, D.F., Gómez Garreta, A., Ribera Siguan, M.A., Rull, J.L., Salvador Soler, N., Lewis, R., Kawai, H. 2011. Estimates of nuclear DNA content in 98 species of brown algae (Phaeophyta). AoB PLANTS 2011 plr001 doi:10.1093/aobpla/plr001 (online publication 18 Jan 2011)

Moshier, S.O., Arnold, D., Funck, L.L., Lewis, R.J., Smith, A.J., Walton, J.H., and Wharton, W.R. 2007. Theories of Origins: A Multi- and Interdisciplinary Course for Undergraduates at Wheaton College. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 59 (4): 289-296.

Lewis, R.J. 2005. Why Should We Care about the Extinction of Species? in D.F. Chappell and E.D. Cook, eds., Not Just Science: Questions Where Christian Faith and Natural Science Intersect, pp. 109-114. Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI.

Lewis, R.J. & *Lanker, M.D. 2004. Branching morphology of gametophytes and tetrasporophytes of Ceramium codicola (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) is related to phase and reproductive structures. Phycologia 43: 121-125.

Lewis, R.J., Johnson, L.M. & Hoagland, K.D. 2002. Effects of cell density, temperature, and light intensity on growth and stalk production in the biofouling diatom Achnanthes longipes (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 38: 1125-1131.

Lewis, R.J., Jensen, S.I., DeNicola, D.M., Miller, V.I., Hoagland, K.D. & Ernst, S.G. 1997. Genetic variation in the diatom Fragilaria capucina along a latitudinal gradient across North America. Plant Systematics and Evolution 204: 99-108.

Sousa-Pinto, I., Lewis, R. & Polne-Fuller, M. 1996. The effect of phosphate concentration on growth and agar content of Gelidium robustum (Gelidiaceae: Rhodophyta) in culture. Fifteenth International Seaweed Symposium. Hydrobiologia 326/327: 437-443.

Lewis, R.J. & Hanisak, M.D. 1996. Effects of phosphate and nitrate supply on productivity, agar composition and agar physical characteristics of Gracilaria Strain G-16S. Journal of Applied Phycology 8: 41-49.

Lewis, R.J. 1996. Phycological Reviews 16. Chromosomes of the brown algae. Phycologia 35: 19-40.

Conference Presentations

Wheaton students indicated with *

Lewis, Raymond, Stephen Moshier, Larry Funck, Robert Bishop, and John Walton. 2015. “Teaching the Science of Origins in the Context of a Robust Doctrine of Creation,” BioLogos Conference on Evolution and Christian Faith, June 30-July 2, 2015, Grand Rapids, MI.

Stephen Moshier, Larry Funck, Robert Bishop, Raymond Lewis, and John Walton. 2015. “A College-Level Textbook: Understanding Scientific Theories of Origins (with Biblical and Theological Perspectives)” Poster, BioLogos Conference on Evolution and Christian Faith, June 30-July 2, 2015, Grand Rapids, MI.

Lewis, R.J., *Jo, J., *Lee, J.J., and *Kohlhepp, T.J. 2013. Detecting Salinity Ecotypes in Gametogenesis in the Kelp Alaria marginata. Phycologia 52 (4 supplement): 62-63. Presented at the 10th International Phycological Congress, Orlando, FL, August 4-10, 2013.

Lewis, R.J. 2012. A Model of Science Higher Education as Christian Service in China. Presented at the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Scientific Affiliation, San Diego, July 20-23, 2012.

Phillips, N., Kapraun, D.F., Garreta, A.G. Siguan, A.R. Rull, J.L. Soler, N.S., Braun, E., Lewis, R., Kawai, H. 2010. Sizing the Heterokont Phaeophycean Genome. Presented by Naomi Phillips at the 64th Annual Meeting of the Phycological Society of America, East Lansing, MI, July 9-13, 2010.

Lewis, R.J., *Matthews, B.J., *Chambers, M.K., *Coburn, M.E. and *Foxwell, T.J. 2009. The effects of salinity on gametogenesis in various kelps (Laminariales), Presented at the 63nd Annual Meeting of the Phycological Society of America, Honolulu, HI, July 18-22, 2009.

Lewis, R.J. and *Johnston, M.R. 2008. Heat stability and volatility of a putative oogenesis-inducing male pheromone in the brown alga Macrocystis integrifolia. Journal of Phycology 45 (s1): 9 (abstract only). Presented at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Phycological Society of America, Loyola University of New Orleans, July 26-30, 2008.

*Hunt, H.C. and Lewis, R.J. 2010. Determining zinc nutrition and toxicity for oogenesis of the brown algae Macrocystis integrifolia and Saccharina japonica. Oral presentation by H. Hunt at the 102nd Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Academy of Science, Millikin University, Decatur, IL, April 9-10, 2010.

*Lee, S.-Y. and Lewis, R.J. 2006. Specificity of male brown algal pheromones. Poster presented by S.-Y. Lee at the Annual meeting of the American Scientific Affiliation, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI, July 28-31, 2006

*Cho, G.E. and Lewis, R.J. 2006. Production of sperm and male pheromone in the giant kelp Macrocystis integrifolia. Poster presented by G. Cho at the Annual meeting of the American Scientific Affiliation, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI, July 28-31, 2006

*Sakoda, D., *Wells, K. & Lewis, R.J. 2004. Effects of a putative male pheromone on oogenesis in the brown alga Macrocystis integrifolia Oral presentation by D. Sakoda, awarded Best Undergraduate Student Presentation Award, Northeast Algal Symposium, April 23-25, 2004.

*Chambers, M.K., *Coburn, M.E. & Lewis, R.J. 2004. Effects of salinity and male presence on growth and reproduction of gametophytes of the brown algae Macrocystis, Pelagophycus, and Pterygophora (poster presentation by M.K. Chambers), Northeast Algal Symposium, April 23-25, 2004.

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